#faltalaotramitad en la política chilena

Por Victoria Hurtado, Subdirectora de Corporación Humanas

Sentidos Comunes_ A pocas semanas de las elecciones presidenciales y parlamentarias -en que las mujeres candidatas al Congreso apenas alcanzan el 18%-, nos informamos que Chile descendió cuatro lugares en el Informe de Igualdad de Género presentado por el Foro Económico Mundial, ubicándose en el puesto 91 en una lista de 136 países.

La realidad que muestra el informe es la que las organizaciones de mujeres y feministas quieren enfrentar con la campaña #faltalaotramitad, que aboga por un Congreso Representativo y Paritario, y ha desplegado slogan aduciendo que la mala calidad de la política, las leyes o de la democracia es producto de la falta de mujeres en política.

No es casual que nuestro país caiga en el ranking de igualdad de género y que los aspectos peor evaluados sean “equidad laboral” y “participación política” de las mujeres, dado que se mantiene la brecha entre los sueldos de trabajadores y trabajadoras (a pesar de existir una ley de Igualdad salarial para hombres y mujeres) y el número histórico de candidatas al Parlamento no expresa variaciones.

El panorama no es esperanzador, porque incluso es probable que disminuya el porcentaje de mujeres presentes en el Parlamento, lo que dificultaría aún más el poner en la tabla legislativa la agenda de género. Sabemos que cuando las mujeres están presentes en el Poder Legislativo impulsan con más fuerza proyectos de ley vinculados a derechos sexuales y reproductivos, a la familia o a la prevención de la violencia, por lo que si ellas no están, es proyectable que dichos proyectos se muevan menos.

Chile va en contra de la tendencia regional, dado que según el informe América Latina ha mejorado la igualdad de género en un 6% entre 2006 y 2013, y varios países han avanzado en materias de participación económica y oportunidades de representación política.
Es así que 14 de los 26 países de la región están entre los 50 lugares mejor evaluados. Por el contrario, Chile está entre los últimos cinco lugares en igualdad de género, sólo superando a El Salvador, Belice, Surinam y Guatemala.

La desmedrada posición de Chile en relación a indicadores de igualdad de género no es novedad, justamente en las áreas peor rankeadas: participación de las mujeres en el mercado laboral y en el ámbito político.

Uno de los pilares en que el Foro Económico Mundial mide la brecha de género es el empoderamiento político, entendido como representación en las estructuras de adopción de decisiones.

Efectivamente, es en la toma de decisiones donde las mujeres no han visto un avance significativo en los últimos años, a pesar de haber tenido una Presidenta de la República y de que hoy tres de nueve candidatos/as a la presidencia sean mujeres, proporción que no se manifiesta en las dirigencias de los partidos políticos ni en la candidaturas a cargos de elección popular.

Nuestro país se ubica por debajo del promedio regional de representación de mujeres en el Congreso (20%), con apenas un 13% en la Cámara Alta y un 14% en la Cámara Baja. En las próximas elecciones, nuevamente las mujeres estarán subrepresentadas en las plantillas de candidatos/as definidas por los partidos políticos, a pesar de ser la mayoría de la población; la mitad del padrón electoral; y de constituir la base de organizaciones partidarias y sociales en nuestro país.

Barreras a las mujeres candidatas
Si bien las chilenas cuentan con derecho a voto desde 1949, su derecho a ser elegidas en cargos de elección popular está en entredicho, mientras los partidos políticos sigan definiendo sus plantillas de candidaturas excluyéndolas.

A las barreras propias de cualquier desafío electoral, las mujeres candidatas ven multiplicadas las restricciones que les pone el sistema político y electoral parlamentario para acceder a cargos de elección popular, a lo que se suman las dificultades para acceder al financiamiento de sus campañas políticas.

En primer término, deben desafiar el principio de “el que tiene mantiene” que viene imponiéndose en las últimas elecciones y que asegura la continuidad de los “incumbentes” (mayoritariamente hombres), en contra de los desafiantes (mujeres y jóvenes).

Basta revisar la nómina de candidatos/as a las parlamentarias del 2013 y la de las municipales del año pasado, para ratificar que las cúpulas partidarias están lejos de representar en sus plantillas la proporción de sus militantes mujeres y que son incapaces de responder a la necesidad de avanzar hacia una Democracia Paritaria.

Si logran ser nominadas por la dirigencia masculina sobrepasando el primer escollo de esta carrera de obstáculos, las mujeres encuentran en el sistema electoral binominal un nuevo muro difícil de escalar.
Además de castigar a las minorías incentivando la conformación de dos pactos; sobrerepresentar al sector de la segunda fuerza electoral; generar empates políticos; el binominal provoca una inmovilidad de los bloques políticos, lo que es poco favorable para las mujeres, ya que se mantienen en el poder las mismas fuerzas políticas.

Por ello, uno de los puntos del petitorio que impulsa la campaña de organizaciones de mujeres y feministas #faltalaotramitad es el fin del sistema binominal y su reemplazo por un sistema electoral que garantice la representatividad y la participación equilibrada de hombres y mujeres.

Las mujeres necesitamos otro sistema electoral, para que esté representada en el Congreso la mitad de la población y el 53% del electorado nacional. Un sistema electoral representativo, paritario, inclusivo y que recoja la diversidad del Chile de hoy.

Múltiples estudios confirman que los sistemas de representación proporcional, con listas cerradas y distritos con mayor número de escaños, son más favorables para la representación de mujeres. Por ello, el Comité de la Cedaw ha recomendado en múltiples oportunidades al Estado de Chile que adopte medidas especiales de carácter temporal destinadas a acelerar la igualdad de facto entre la mujer y el hombre, y que tome las medidas necesarias para reformar el sistema binominal.

Durante la discusión legislativa, las mujeres que impulsamos la campaña #faltalaotramitad hicimos un llamado a que los proyectos de cambio al binominal actualmente en el Congreso incorporaran proporcionalidad efectiva. Lo mismo en el debate sobre reformas políticas, para que se consideraran mecanismos que aseguren la inclusión de mujeres en candidaturas a cargos de elección popular.

Democracia Paritaria
La campaña #faltalaotramitad busca avanzar hacia una Democracia Paritaria, con nueva Constitución Política; fin al sistema binominal; leyes para la igualdad; partidos políticos democráticos, transparentes y paritarios; y financiamiento público preferencial a campañas de mujeres.

Chile requiere una nueva Constitución Política que supere la ilegitimidad de origen de la actual carta fundamental y en la cual el principio de igualdad entre hombres y mujeres tenga reconocimiento constitucional.
En el camino a la representación equilibrada de hombres y mujeres en los diversos ámbitos del quehacer nacional, también necesitamos leyes para la igualdad que apelen a una igualdad de trato y de resultados, a poner fin a las desigualdades de género y a construir una sociedad sin estereotipos patriarcales que ubican a las mujeres en el lugar de las subordinadas.

Las organizaciones convocantes de la campaña #faltalaotramitad y que abogan por una Democracia Paritaria son: Centro de Estudios de la Mujer (CEM); Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo de la Mujer (CEDEM); Corporación Humanas; Corporación La Morada; Fundación Dialoga; Movimiento Pro Emancipación de la Mujer Chilena (MEMCH); y Observatorio de Género y Equidad.-

Posted in Noticias.

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