«Si la violencia sexual no se sanciona, en tiempos de paz vuelve a aparecer»

* Carolina Carrera preside el Centro de Estudios y Acción Política Feminista Corporación Humanas, que promueve los derechos humanos de las mujeres y la justicia de género en Chile y Latinoamérica. En 2010, interpuso junto a Patricia Herrera la primera querella por violencia sexual como forma de tortura sistemática durante la dictadura. «Fue una manera de castigar al enemigo y a aquellas que se salieron de esa imagen mariana de la mujer», afirma a GARA.
A. LERTXUNDI

Periódico vasco Gara_ En 2010, Corporación Humanas presentó la primera querella y, un año después, otras cinco. ¿Qué recorrido han tenido desde entonces?
– Las querellas se están investigando en el sistema penal antiguo, un sistema inquisitorio en el que la investigación se realiza por impulso del juez con secreto de sumario. Las víctimas han declarado, se ha recopilado la información necesaria sobre los testigos y ya se han practicado periciales forenses. Esperamos que el juez decida elevar la cuestión a plenario y formule acusaciones contra los agentes del Estado que resulten responsables. Es importante que las mujeres denuncien la violencia sexual como tortura porque si no se sanciona y repara, en tiempos de paz vuelve a reaparecer como lo hemos visto en manifestaciones sociales y de femicidios.

– ¿Cómo y con qué objetivos se ejerció?
– Vale recordar que entre los objetivos de la dictadura estaba el de refundar las bases «morales» de una nueva sociedad que se erigía después del «caos y el desorden». Se reinstala desde el Estado la imagen «mariana» de la mujer: pasiva, abnegada y sacrificada, en su rol tradicional en la familia matrimonial, y la reimposición de las tutelas sobre el cuerpo de las mujeres a través de la (re)asociación entre maternidad y sexualidad.

Lo que se impone con el golpe militar es una manera de mirar el mundo y sus relaciones, entre ellas las de género. Se impone un solo modelo de mujer y un único discurso sobre las mujeres. La dictadura convoca a las mujeres, en tanto esposas y madres, a convertirse en la reserva moral de la patria, y a volver a su rol tradicional.

La violencia sexual es una manera de castigar a aquellas que se salieron de ese rol y de amedrentar al resto, y también de castigar al enemigo. Sabemos que es un continuo que se exacerba en tiempos de conflictos armado y represión política, pero también es dramática en tiempos de paz.

– ¿Por qué la violencia sexual se asume como parte del guión?
– Porque culturalmente la violencia sexual se ha naturalizado y muchas malas prácticas de las policías se han mantenido como normales como es la desnudez forzada y el trato que les dan a las mujeres detenidas donde se vuelven a escuchar palabras como ´putas´, ´perras´, ´esto les pasa por andar en la calle´… entre muchas otras. En general, la violencia sexual no se denuncia o queda en la impunidad en Chile.

– ¿Por qué tantos años de silencio?
– El ciclo se inicia en el contexto de una experiencia extrema; la detención-tortura y dentro de ésta, la experiencia de la violencia sexual. Las mujeres no quieren y no pueden hablar. A esto se suma que la tortura es reconocida en su forma más tradicional, electricidad, golpes, emparrillamiento, colgamientos, submarinos, por lo que les costaba ver la violencia sexual como tortura, y el silencio de los organismos de derechos humanos de la época que por temor, pudor o por el contexto de búsqueda de desaparecidos no preguntaron sobre violencia sexual a las víctimas. Por su parte, las víctimas la ocultaron frente a sus familias para no herir. Así han debido pasar 40 años para que puedan hablar y romper este círculo del silencio.

Durante las protestas estudiantiles de 2012, Corporación Humanas denunció a GARA la existencia de un «vínculo entre la dictadura» y la violencia contra las estudiantes por parte de los Carabineros.

– ¿Sigue imperando una visión conservadora sobre la mujer en las Fuerzas Armadas?
– Sí. Chile es un país extremadamente machista. En la encuesta que realizamos anualmente a mujeres a nivel nacional se revela que el 90% de las mujeres opina que Chile es un país machista y que esto les causa malestar en su vida cotidiana. De esto, por supuesto, no están exentas instituciones patriarcales como la Fuerzas Armadas y los Carabineros. Por eso es tan importante hacer las denuncias y que se investigue al interior de estas ramas y sancionen a los responsables.

– ¿En la vecina Argentina, el juicio y la sentencia por los crímenes cometidos en la ESMA contribuyó a visibilizar la violencia sexual como tortura y a elevarla a dicha categoría. ¿Puede este fallo ayudar a Chile a dar mayor realce a estas denuncias?
– Es muy importante lo que ha pasado en Argentina con el reconocimiento de la violencia sexual como una violación de los derechos humanos que constituye un delito de lesa humanidad. Ha ayudado a visibilizar y a mostrar cómo en la «operación Cóndor» la violencia sexual fue un método de tortura en los países de la región.

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